Interview With Noguchi Isao: A Passion For Biological Diversity

The Future of the Seed of Life (Part 1) (Part 2)

In the early part of the 20th century, Japanese researchers were the first in the world to develop F1 hybrids of silkworms. This was done using a basic F1 method of breeding and soon it was applied to eggplants and other vegetables as well. For example, at the Agricultural Experiment Station in Saitama prefecture, researchers first crossed purse eggplants with a true black eggplant using artificial pollination.

Noguchi Isao uses this as an example to explain F1 hybrids when he holds lectures, with charts and graphs. He notes that most water melons for sale today are of the striped type, with a harder skin, that are easier to transport to supermarkets. “Most people have forgotten the taste of the older varieties,” he says.

In some cases, such as the Komatsuna (leafy Japanese spinach mustard) researchers mobilized large groups of housewives to help with the intricate work of artificially pollinating the plants. This required a lot of patience and skill with tweezers, as the tiny buds had to be carefully opened and pollen inserted. The pollination had to be done this way, to avoid natural pollination that would occur after the bud had opened. It was thought that this technique, called “self-incompatibility” was a Japanese specialty. Newer methods include using green houses that are sealed up carefully, to increase the levels of CO2 in the air. This changes the plants as their physiology goes mad, as Noguchi-san calls it. The stress response mechanism in the plants makes it possible for bees to spread the pollen and achieve the desired cross breeding result.

Male sterility is another technique used to create F1 hybrid vegetables. This was discovered in California in 1929 and soon imported to Hokkaido Agricultural Experiment Station, where new types of onions were developed, including a yellow variety that was crossbred with a red onion. The researchers were able to produce a novel yellow onion with disease resistance in this way.

For the brassica family, researchers found a way to use male sterility to create new F1 hybrids of cabbage and spinach with traits found in a type of radish. As the chromosomes of radish and cabbage are different, they would not normally cross breed, but using the stressful CO2 intensive method described above, the pollination suddenly becomes possible. Most cabbages sold in supermarkets today come from seeds that have been produced in this way. These cabbages are easy to store over long periods of time, but it is not possible to save seeds from such plants, as they will not grow normally.

Understanding male sterility

Noguchi-san uses his website to post articles and essays about seeds and breeding, and he often writes about his own discoveries and “aha” – experiences. One such case was when he wrote about male sterility, and his concerns about this artificial breeding method. One of his readers contacted him to comment on this essay. The reader was an expert at one of Japan’s large commercial seed companies. Noguchi-san learned that male sterility in plants actually is a result of the mitochondria in the cells of plants. The unique character of the mitochondria is that it is only passed on to the offspring from females, and never from males.

The F1 hybrid vegetables we are commonly eating all have the abnormal characters of male sterility. Noguchi-san then got worried when the World Health Organization noted that Japanese males have the lowest sperm counts in the world compared to other developed countries. This was big news in Japan in the fall of 2006. One theory is that this is due to endocrine disrupters, a type of chemicals that can influence fertility. Noguchi-san, however, thinks it is due to dysfunctional mitochondria, passed along through F1 hybrids: “I think we lose some of our original vitality as a function of both the environment and possibly also from the food we eat.”

The modern breeding techniques used for many vegetables and legumes to produce F1 hybrids do not work so well for beans. Noguchi-san points out that beans simply are too costly to breed that way, and seed companies cannot make a profit. However, by using irradiation the researchers found a way to make new F1 varieties of soybeans, in particular the smaller beans used for making natto in Japan. The irradiation used by seed companies and researchers damage the plant’s genome, and the character of the offspring is thus changed. Another example of a root vegetable developed this way is the salad gobo (salad burdoch), a miniature variety of the usually much longer and stronger plant.

GMO is “environmental damage”

Noguchi-san is very critical of genetically modified organisms (GMO) and especially the development of GM foods. He thinks this is environmental damage to the highest degree and worst extent possible. In particular, he notes that the understanding of genetic engineering still is in its infancy, and the researchers do not really know what they are doing. “Neither insect resistance nor herbicide tolerance is very useful, except as a way for the agrochemicals industry to make a huge profit,” he says. He adds that they are profiting from the very problem they caused in the first place by having encouraged farmers to use large amounts of agrochemicals, and now many plants and insects have become resistant and the toxic pesticides and herbicides have become useless.

Noguchi Isao warns that the so-called Terminator technology, an extreme form of genetic engineering that passes on a trait rendering the offspring of the GMO sterile, will make it impossible for farmers to save seed: “It is a suicide technology,” he says, and points out that companies like Monsanto have already done a lot of research and development in this area. If this trait is accidentally spread across fields, for example through bacteria, it can be the origin of a terrible plague killing plants on our planet. But he also reminds us that F1 hybrids work in a similar way, as the offspring do not breed true.

Rather than entering such an abnormal world, Noguchi-san wants to promote healthy seeds. The regular native seeds (such as heirloom varieties) do not really need any chemical fertilizers, as the crops from such seeds are powerful enough to grow.

“We should listen more to nature, with a modest attitude, rather than fighting it with our intellects,” he says. Real seeds are healthy because their genome is vital, with energetic mitochondria: “Such seeds want to grow, and we want to eat such vegetables!

(Please click here to read Part 1 of this interview)

Interview With Noguchi Isao: Why Do Old-Style Vegetables Taste Much Better!?

The Future of the Seed of Life (Part 1) (Part 2) 

noguchi-foodNoguchi Isao was born in the seed shop that his grandfather started. In this special 2-part interview Consumers Union of Japan highlights his efforts to share his wealth of knowledge about seed and farming. Noguchi explains his fascination with “old” style vegetables and the huge difference in taste compared to F1 (hybrid) varieties and why he is against GMOs. We get a glimpse of his deep respect for the biological diversity and genetic heritage that are the basis for the seeds he helps develop and sell to farmers, giving consumers a taste of real food.

Continue reading Interview With Noguchi Isao: Why Do Old-Style Vegetables Taste Much Better!?

New GMO Food Additives To Be Introduced Without Full Safety Appraisal

Labelled only as “amino acid and others”

On September 14, 2009, two new food additives from Ajinomoto were judged to be “safe” by the Expert Committee for Genetically Modified Food and Others at the Food Safety Commission (FSC). The appraisal was open for public comments and it seems likely that the two novel amino acid products will be approved by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labour by the end of November. 

So far, several GMO food additives have been approved, but they were basically used for food processing, as in the case of enzymes like alpha amylase for improved productivity. There have been no cases of GMO food additives that are used directly as seasoning as is the case of amino acids. Thus, when Ajinomoto first submitted these GMO products, there was no established method for safety appraisal. 

That was why the Food Safety Commission has published a “Directive for safety assessment of food additives which are produced using genetically modified micro-organisms and which are highly refined and have non-protein characteristics, including amino acids.” (Many studies have verified that the process of genetic engineering can produce unpredicted toxins or allergens.)  Continue reading New GMO Food Additives To Be Introduced Without Full Safety Appraisal

World Social Forum: Challenging The Economic Order

CUJ and other NGOs including Attac Japan, People’s Plan and Space Allies/Allies Law Office are preparing for the World Social Forum 2010 to be held on January 24, 2010 in Tokyo and on March 21, 2010 in Osaka.

world-social-forum-tokyo-2010-poster

Before that, on November 23, 2009, a meeting will be held to discuss how we can challenge Davos and the economic order promoted by global leaders, who created the current financial crisis. Speakers include Christophe Augiton from France and Chico Whitaker from Brazil.

It is the first time in 10 years we have an opportunity to invite two of the founders and main actors of the WSF movement. What is World Social Forum and what does it mean for you and your future? Come and participate on Monday, which is Labour Day holiday in Japan!

Date: November 23, 2009 Time: 13:30-16:30

Venue: Nambu Rosei Kaikan  (Ozaki Station)

Address: Gate City West Tower, Ozaki 1-11-1, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo

Charge: Y800

Tokyo Social Forum (Japanese website)

World Social Forum (International website)

Biodiversity In Focus: Genetic Modification Of Living Organisms Is A Threat

Christine von Weizsäcker visits Japan: Genetic modification of living organisms is a threat to biodiversity

In October 2010, an important international conference will be held in Nagoya, Japan, to discuss the integrity of biodiversity, as genetic engineering threatens to influence and disturb the ecosystems around the world. The topic of genetically modified organisms is on the agenda in Nagoya, because there is concern that the shipping and handling of imported GMO crops can contaminate local varieties of similar crops.

091027 Christine von Weizsacker

In October 2009 Consumers Union of Japan and other NGOs in the Japan Citizens’ Network for Planet Diversity (JCNPD) invited Christine von Weizsäcker, biologist, author and activist from Germany who has been closely following all the negotiations about the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). She gave several lectures and met with activists and politicians in Japan.

JCNPD held citizen meetings in Nagoya and Tokyo to learn more about her views about the negotiation process and the issues that are currently being discussed at the United Nations level. These include access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their utilization (ABS), and international rules and procedures on liability and redress for damage resulting from transboundary movements of living modified organisms in the context of the Cartagena Protocol.

At the meeting in Nagoya on October 24, citizens’ groups also made detailed reports about the nation-wide investigation in Japan, showing how imported GMO canola seeds have fallen from trucks, taken root and crossed with other related species in many locations, especially near ports.

This has clearly shown the environmental pollution involved when importing GMO crops, a risk that has caused anxiety among many people.

Parliament symposium with elected politicians

Talking directly to elected politicians in Japan, many who may never before have heard about the Convention on Biological Diversity or the Cartagena Protocol in such detail, Christine emphasized that parliamentary initiatives and decisions can help to promote new topics and tasks. She also expressed hope that the international association called GLOBE should participate in Nagoya: “Representatives of cities come to Nagoya, civil society comes, business comes, why not members of Japan’s parliament?”

Christine von Weizsäcker spoke to about 100 participants at the Diet Members Building in Kasumigaseki, Tokyo on October 27. Among the audience, some 25 were elected members of parliament and some 40 were secretaries of Upper and Lower Houses members. She noted that nature and people worldwide are hoping for Japan to act as an “excellent” host of the meeting, having prepared a coherent national position, consolidated between the different government ministries, and led by the Environment Minister: the position should not be led by other ministries, such as the Trade and Agriculture Ministries. 

091027 CUJ Biodiversity Symposium Tokyo Japan Parliament

Developing countries in particular are waiting for a legally binding agreement on equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of their genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. Their motivation to conserve and to sustainably use biodiversity is being destroyed if justice is not established,” Christine said.

She pointed out that the negotiations should finalize legally binding international liability rules for potential harm caused by GMO (called living modified organisms in the CBD context for historical reasons). The harm can be both to biodiversity and to human health, in addition to human socio-economic and cultural well-being. Even “spiritual” harm is identified in the text that is currently under negotiation. “Nagoya must succeed in taking a major step in international environmental governance, making the polluter pay and ensuring that no victim shall go without compensation,” said Christine.

The visit of Christine von Weizsäcker was all the more successful because she was invited by Mr. Sakihito Ozawa, Japan’s Minister of Environment, who will be the chair person at the Nagoya meeting in 2010, to give him a special briefing on what Japan needs to do as the host country in order not to repeat the failures of the past meetings.

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